When you write background which seems to trip people up in the proposal more than anything else when you write it you’re just listening to what happens you’re listening to the events you’re finding out who the big players are because you know there’s somebody that you know they can say so than crazy and everybody laughs oh that’s great that’s great you know that’s a big dog in the field okay you know that’s a big dog everybody’s listening whoever he’s listening to that’s how you use that google scholar as well but then you find out what hasn’t been done in your field aha you’re going to fill that gap in the research you know everybody’s looked at this problem they haven’t solved it because they haven’t looked at it this way if you know that and can articulate it that proposal almost writes itself. Get to know some strategies for communicating with committees at Robotdon.

I’m kind of teasing it doesn’t but you know everybody has an outside member on their committee is that correct okay I write my audience is the outside member my audience in my head when I’m writing I’m not writing to my chair who is an expert in my particular topic I write to the outside member because if the outside member on your committee can understand your proposal then everybody in your committee can understand the proposal and that means explaining a lot of things that you want a shortcut everybody knows that using these acronyms and these things and blah blah if you’re outside committee member doesn’t understand it explain it so explain everything Theory’s methyl methodologies key terms that your committee members you’ll be surprised they may not be experts on the theory that you’re using so explain it this two things one it informs committee members who aren’t familiar with your research about what you’re doing but there’s even something more subversive it also tells your committee that you know what you’re talking about as well this is I’m going to get in the nuts and bolts if you guys don’t mind how to write it because there are a lot of people can have stuck in abstraction about how to do your proposal.

But I want to talk about some of the things that trip people up and help you with that if I can so really what you’re doing in that background is you’re saying what do other people say okay what do experts in the field say about X well a number of studies have suggested that what are commonplace opinions on X it is accepted practice too and that may be assumptive that is accepted practice too you have to be careful about that but what does everybody buy what does everybody believe what does every what is the standard practice what do people apply or assume what are both sides of the argument and those are the things that you can find in the literature and you want to indicate back to your committee okay what are people talking about what are t people talking about then you position yourself in that argument well this is what someone so it says and I agree with that but here okay even in life sciences and so forth.

Let’s us talk about how to structure an academic essay. So, there are three parts, introduction, the body and conclusion. As I have already told you in introduction, you state the basic premise, and how you are going to approach it, whether you agree or disagree, what is your opinion, are you taking a stand, are you applying any theory here. And introduction could be in 3 to 4 sentences, it can also be in one lengthy paragraph, but you cannot have paragraphs, after paragraphs of introduction. Body of the essay can have several parts, you can speak go on talking about for in one paragraph and give several justifications; remember each paragraph has to have one main point, one central point, you can go on and on non for about for and then you can go on and on non about against. Body can always have several paras. Conclusion is the summary of what you have of the stand that you have taken, and whether you agree, disagree, giving your opinion. So, you have to reiterate more firmly.

Remember in conclusion, you do not bring about a new point, I have been saying this, but this is also possible. So, please summary is or conclusion is like summarizing and tying up threads, it’s is not starting a new thread or a strand here. So, you have to remember that. So, we will be doing, how to write a paragraph and we will also be doing how to write more academic kinds of essays in our subsequent classes. But before we do that let me introduce you to linking words that is the second part of our talk today or our lecture today. You know words in English and you know what they mean, but there are words that we use to join our ideas correctly, these words are called linking words. Please take a look at these slides. How we sequence ideas in within a given within the body of an essay. So, we may say firstly, we may say secondly, but don’t not over use this firstly, secondly, thirdly fourthly.

Firstly and secondly are good enough then you can always say finally, first of all; we can also say instead of firstly and first of all to begin with. Instead of saying secondly, hence something like that you can always say next, so it is sequencing of ideas. Finally, lastly in conclusion, again you are sequencing your ideas. Let’s us look at this slide, how you express contrast. This is true, but still there are some problems with it; however. So but, however, on the other hand, in contrast, nevertheless, yet, these words express contrast. Look at this slide, these word express conditions; if, unless, when, whether. And when you want to give reason for something because, due to, as, owing to. And when you want give examples – for instance, for example. Look at this slide; it’s is a useful slide for you for looking at references on academic writing. Now, let me do one sample text with you; this is about referential words.