Let’s us talk about how to structure an academic essay. So, there are three parts, introduction, the body and conclusion. As I have already told you in introduction, you state the basic premise, and how you are going to approach it, whether you agree or disagree, what is your opinion, are you taking a stand, are you applying any theory here. And introduction could be in 3 to 4 sentences, it can also be in one lengthy paragraph, but you cannot have paragraphs, after paragraphs of introduction. Body of the essay can have several parts, you can speak go on talking about for in one paragraph and give several justifications; remember each paragraph has to have one main point, one central point, you can go on and on non for about for and then you can go on and on non about against. Body can always have several paras. Conclusion is the summary of what you have of the stand that you have taken, and whether you agree, disagree, giving your opinion. So, you have to reiterate more firmly.
Remember in conclusion, you do not bring about a new point, I have been saying this, but this is also possible. So, please summary is or conclusion is like summarizing and tying up threads, it’s is not starting a new thread or a strand here. So, you have to remember that. So, we will be doing, how to write a paragraph and we will also be doing how to write more academic kinds of essays in our subsequent classes. But before we do that let me introduce you to linking words that is the second part of our talk today or our lecture today. You know words in English and you know what they mean, but there are words that we use to join our ideas correctly, these words are called linking words. Please take a look at these slides. How we sequence ideas in within a given within the body of an essay. So, we may say firstly, we may say secondly, but don’t not over use this firstly, secondly, thirdly fourthly.
Firstly and secondly are good enough then you can always say finally, first of all; we can also say instead of firstly and first of all to begin with. Instead of saying secondly, hence something like that you can always say next, so it is sequencing of ideas. Finally, lastly in conclusion, again you are sequencing your ideas. Let’s us look at this slide, how you express contrast. This is true, but still there are some problems with it; however. So but, however, on the other hand, in contrast, nevertheless, yet, these words express contrast. Look at this slide, these word express conditions; if, unless, when, whether. And when you want to give reason for something because, due to, as, owing to. And when you want give examples – for instance, for example. Look at this slide; it’s is a useful slide for you for looking at references on academic writing. Now, let me do one sample text with you; this is about referential words.